Фазовая диаграмма системы Be-Ni

К оглавлению: Другие диаграммы (Others phase diargams)


Be-Ni (Beryllium-Nickel) H. Okamoto and L.E. Tanner Although the phase diagram for the Be-Ni system has been investigated extensively, it has not been established conclusively. The assessed diagram is adopted tentatively from [80Fri], with review of the experimental data of [ 29Mas], [37Ger], [39Oka], [42Los], [50Kau], [59Gel], [60Gel], [61Blo], [62Amo], and [76Jon]. Within the framework of the present thermodynamic modeling, the b phase field was hard to model because of the asymmetry in its homogeneity range and in the L + b two-phase fields. The equilibrium phases in the assessed diagram are (1) the liquid, L; (2) the bcc (bBe) phase, with a maximum solubility of ~10 at.% Ni and with a congruent melting point at ~1390 C and 8 at.% Ni; (3) the cph (aBe) phase, with a maximum solubility of ~4.5 at.% Ni at the (bBe) = (aBe) + g eutectoid temperature of 1062 C and with a maximum transition temperature to (bBe) of 1283 C at ~2 at.% Ni; (4) the g-brass type g phase and fcc g› phase in the composition range between 11.5 and 19 at.% Ni, with a congruent melting point of ~1395 C at 16 at.% Ni; (5) the CsCl-type b phase in the composition range between 25 and 51.6 at.% Ni, with a congruent melting point at 1605 C; and (6) the fcc terminal solid solution, (Ni), with a maximum solubility of 15 at.% Be at the L = b + (Ni) eutectic temperature of 1150 C. The solubility of Be in (Ni) can be increased to >11.7 at.% at 700 C by neutron irradiation [77Gri] . Stabilization of (bBe) by quenching has been attempted. (bBe) could not be retained by [63Pap] or [80Fri]. Its transition temperature was lowered to 242 C when a 8.46 at.% Ni alloy was quenched from 1186 C at 14 000 C/s [61Gel]. [64Pap] reported that (bBe) could be retained when a liquid with 8 at.% Ni was quenched on a copper plate cooled by liquid nitrogen, but could not be identified by X-ray studies because the diffraction lines superimposed with those of the g phase. The superconducting transition temperature of a 10 at.% Ni alloy as arc melted or quenched from 1200 C into water was about 2.4 K, which was considered to be due to the stabilized (bBe) phase [67Ols]. Because retention of (bBe) may have been prevented by the heat treatments used by [67Ols], the observed superconductivity may have been due to the g phase. Supersaturated (aBe) with Ni can be prepared as a martensitically transformed phase by quenching from the (bBe) phase field [63Pap, 64Pap]. [61Pic] reported that an 8.46 at.% Ni alloy is hypereutectic, which is presumably related to ( aBe) and g, because (bBe) cannot be retained. Because of their wide homogeneity range, the g and g› phases have been referred to with various stoichiometries. [35Mis] found the Be21Ni5 (19.2 at.% Ni) phase in the composition range 17.5 to 18.1 at.% Ni. Judging from its structure (distorted g-brass type) and composition, it may have been the ordered fcc g› phase in the assessed diagram. A g-brass type phase, g, also exists. The transition from g to g› is not well defined. [80Fri] showed a vertical line at 14 at.% Ni separating the two phases, with g on the Be-rich side. Because the g phase was found in a wider composition range beyond 14 at.% Ni, the assessed diagram was drawn with a transition boundary having an arbitrary slope (this is subject to further study). The Ni-rich end of the g› phase field also needs further study. Because of significant disagreement between [42Los] and [80Fri], the phase boundaries of the b phase need confirmatory studies. Because of the large (~15 at.%) equilibrium solubility of Be in (Ni) at the eutectic temperature and small solubilities at low temperatures (~2 at.% at 400 C), the aging process of (Ni) has been studied in detail. The series of metastable phases that form during the course of aging of the (Ni) solid solution are analogous to those observed for aging fcc (Cu) in Be-Cu. [65Dec] listed g›BeNi3 as a metastable phase. No detail was given. [70Maz] found bct b›, which exists as a semi-coherent phase in an Fe-40% Ni alloy matrix hardened with Be. The composition of b› is between b and g›BeNi3. [ 77Var] found an orthorhombic metastable phase in rapidly quenched alloys with compositions ranging from 64.5 to 68.5 at.% Ni. The relation to g›BeNi3 is not known. A 31.5 at.% Ni alloy consists of b and an unidentified phase, which is not Be21Ni5(g›) [62Jor]. No further information is available. The Curie temperature of Ni is 354.2 C [82Rhy]. The variation with Be content was measured by [37Ger] and [39Oka]; the discrepancy of about 60 C between [ 37Ger] and [39Oka] has not been resolved. [75Bis] expressed the data of [37Ger] as 631.4 - 22.0 XBe K, where XBe is the atomic fraction of Be. The average magnetic moment per atom is 0.616 - 2.13 XBe mB [67Her]. 29Mas: G. Masing and O. Dahl, Wiss. Veroffentl. Siemens-Konzern, 8(1), 211-219 (1929) in German. 35Mis: L. Misch, Z. Phys. Chem. B, 29, 42-58 (1935) in German. 37Ger: W. Gerlach, Z. Metallkd., 29, 124-131 (1937) in German. 39Oka: M. Okamoto, J. Jpn. Inst. Met., 3, 444-448 (1939) in Japanese. 42Los: L. Losana and C. Goria, Alluminio, 11(1), 17-22 (1942) in Italian. 50Kau: A.R. Kaufmann, P. Gordon, and D.W. Lillie, Trans. ASM, 42, 785-844 ( 1950). 59Gel: S.H. Gelles, R.E. Ogilvie, and A.R. Kaufmann, Trans. AIME, 215(8), 695- 702 (1959). 60Gel: S.H. Gelles and J.J. Pickett, U.S. At. Energy Comm. NMI-1218, 44 p ( 1960). 61Blo: N.I. Blok, N.F. Lashko, and O.A. Khromova, Zavod. Lab., 27, 251-252 ( 1961) in Russian; TR: Ind. Lab. USSR, 27, 253-254 (1961). 61Gel: S.H. Gelles, J.J. Pickett, E.D. Levine, and W.B. Nowak, Institute of Metals Conference on Metallurgy on Beryllium, London, Preprint No. 33, 11 p ( 1961); Inst. Metals, Monograph Rept. Ser. No. 28, The Metallurgy of Beryllium, Institute of Metals, London, 588-600 (1963). 61Pic: J.J. Pickett, E.D. Levine, and W.B. Nowak, U.S. At. Energy Comm. NMI- 1252, 34 p (1961). 62Amo: V.M. Amonenko, V.Ye. Ivanov, G.F. Tikhinskiy, and V.A. Finkel, Fiz. Met. Metalloved., 14(6), 852-857 (1962) in Russian; TR: Phys. Met., Metallogr., 14( 6), 47-51 (1962). 62Jor: C.B. Jordan, Tech. Rept. ASD-TDR-62-181 (AD 284409), 33 p (1962). 63Pap: I.I. Papirov, G.F. Tikhinskiy, and V.A. Finkel, Fiz. Met. Metalloved, 15(3), 462-465 (1963) in Russian; TR: Phys. Met. Metallogr., 15(3), 120-122 ( 1963). 64Pap: I.I. Papirov, G.F. Tikhinskiy, and V.A. Finkel', Fiz. Met. Metalloved., 17(4), 613-614 (1964) in Russian; TR: Phys. Met. Metallogr., 17(4), 132-133 ( 1964). 65Dec: R.F. Decker and R.R. DeWitt, J. Met., 17(2), 139-145 (1965). 67Her: A. Herr and A.J.P. Meyer, Compt. Rend., B, 265, 1165-1168 (1967) in French. 67Hor: E. Hornbogen and M. Roth, Z. Metallkd., 58(12), 842-855 (1967). 67Ols: C.E. Olsen, B.T. Matthias, and H.H. Hill, Z. Phys., 200, 7-12 (1967). 70Maz: J.C. Mazaud, Fizika, Suppl., 2(2), 36.1-36.8 (1970). 74Ver: L.F. Verkhorobin, N.N. Matyushenko, N.F. Pugachev, and Yu.G. Titov, Tezisy Dokl., Vses. Konf. Kristallokhim. Intermet. Soedin., 2nd, R.M. Rykhal, Ed., 84-85 (1974) in Russian. 75Bis: H. Bisswanger and R. Sizmann, Radiat. Eff., 24(2), 79-87 (1975). 76Jon: S. Jonsson, Diss., Max Planck-Institute, 84 p (1976) in German. 77Gri: P.P. Grinchuk and Ye.M. Loboda, Fiz. Met. Metallovd., 43(6), 1253-1258 ( 1977) in Russian; TR: Phys. Met. Metallogr., 43(6), 115-120 (1977). 77Var: N.I. Varich, V.I. Savich, and A.N. Petrunina, Izv. V.U.Z. Tsvetn. Metall., (4), 113-116 (1977) in Russian. 79Ald: F. Aldinger and G. Petzow, in Beryllium Science and Technology, Vol. 1, D. Webster and G.J. London, Ed., 235-305 (1979). 80Fri: K.M. Friederich, S. Jonsson, F. Aldinger, and G. Petzow, Z. Metallkd., 71(9), 584-597 (1980) in German. 81Iva: M.I. Ivanov, T.F. Karpova, and N.Yu. Dalago, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Neorg. Mater., 17(4), 627-630 (1981) in Russian; TR: Inorg. Mater., 17(4), 414- 416 (1981). 82Rhy: J.J. Rhyne, Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams, 3(3), 401-402 (1982). Published in Phase Diagrams of Binary Nickel Alloys, 1991, Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams, 9(5), Oct 1988, and Phase Diagrams of Binary Beryllium Alloys, 1987. Complete evaluation contains 4 figures, 9 tables, and 60 references. Special Points of the Be-Ni System